Sweetened and unsweetened coffee consumption associated with a lower risk of death

Overview: Those who drink sweetened coffee daily are up to 31% less likely to die within 7 years than non-coffee drinkers. Those who drank unsweetened coffee were 21% less likely to die during follow-up.

Source: American College of Physicians

A cohort study found that adults who drank moderate amounts (1.5 to 3.5 cups per day) of unsweetened or sugar-sweetened coffee, compared with non-coffee drinkers, were less likely to die over a 7-day follow-up period. year.

The results for those who used artificial sweeteners were less clear.

The findings are published in Annals of Internal Medicine.

Previous studies that observed the health effects of coffee have shown that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of death, but no distinction was made between unsweetened coffee and coffee consumed with sugar or artificial sweeteners.

Researchers from the Southern Medical University in Guangzhou, China, used data from the UK Biobank Health Behavior Questionnaire to evaluate the associations of consumption of sugar-sweetened, artificially sweetened and unsweetened coffee with all-cause and all-cause mortality.

More than 171,000 participants from the UK with no known heart disease or cancer were asked various questions about diet and health behavior to determine coffee consumption habits.

  • The authors found that participants who drank unsweetened coffee over the 7-year follow-up period were 16 to 21% less likely to die than participants who did not drink coffee.
  • They also found that participants who drank 1.5 to 3.5 cups of coffee sweetened with sugar daily were 29 to 31% less likely to die than participants who did not drink coffee.
  • The authors noted that adults who drank sugar-sweetened coffee added, on average, only about 1 teaspoon of sugar per cup of coffee.
  • The results were inconclusive for participants who used artificial sweeteners in their coffee.

Any accompanying editorial from the editors of Annals of Internal Medicine notes that while coffee may have properties that enable health benefits, confounding variables, including harder-to-measure differences in socioeconomic status, diet and other lifestyle factors, could influence the findings.

Previous studies that observed the health effects of coffee have shown that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of death, but no distinction was made between unsweetened coffee and coffee consumed with sugar or artificial sweeteners. Image is in the public domain

The authors add that the participant data is at least 10 years old and comes from a country where tea is an equally popular beverage.

They warn that the average amount of daily sugar per cup of coffee recorded in this analysis is much lower than specialty drinks in popular coffee chain restaurants, and many coffee consumers may be drinking it instead of other drinks, making comparisons with non-drinkers more difficult. makes .

Based on this data, clinicians can tell their patients that most coffee drinkers don’t need to cut the drink from their diet, but should be careful with higher calorie specialty coffees.

About this coffee and death research news

Author: press office
Source: American College of Physicians
Contact: Press Office – American College of Physicians
Image: The image is in the public domain

Original research: Closed access.
“Association of sugar-sweetened, artificially sweetened, and unsweetened coffee consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality” by Dan Liu et al. Annals of Internal Medicine

Closed access.
“The Potential Health Benefit of Coffee: Does a Spoonful of Sugar Make It All Go Away?” by Christina C. Wee. Annals of Internal Medicine


Abstract

Association of sugar-sweetened, artificially sweetened, and unsweetened coffee consumption with all-cause and all-cause mortality

Background:

Previous observational studies have suggested an association between coffee intake and a reduced risk of death, but these studies did not distinguish between coffee consumed with sugar or artificial sweeteners and coffee consumed without sugar.

Objective:

To evaluate the associations of consumption of sugar-sweetened, artificially sweetened, and unsweetened coffee with all-cause and all-cause mortality.

Design:

Prospective cohort study.

Institution:

Data were extracted from the UK Biobank.

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Attendees:

A total of 171 616 participants (mean age, 55.6 years [SD, 7.9]) without cardiovascular disease (CVD) or cancer at baseline were eligible. Baseline demographic, lifestyle and nutritional data from the UK Biobank were used, with follow-up commencing in 2009 and ending in 2018.

Dimensions:

Dietary consumption of sugar-sweetened, artificially sweetened and unsweetened coffee was self-reported. All-cause, cancer-related and CVD-related deaths were estimated.

Results:

During a median follow-up of 7.0 years, 3177 deaths were recorded (including 1725 deaths from cancer and 628 deaths from cardiovascular disease). Cox models with penalized splines showed U-shaped associations of unsweetened coffee, sugar-sweetened coffee, and artificially sweetened coffee with mortality. Compared to non-consumers, consumers of varying amounts of unsweetened coffee (>0 to 1.5, >1.5 to 2.5, >2.5 to 3.5, >3.5 to 4.5 and >4, 5 drinks/d) a lower risk of all-cause mortality after adjusting for lifestyle, sociodemographic and clinical factors, with hazard ratios of 0.79 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.90), 0.84 (CI 0 .74 to 0.95), 0.71 (CI 0.62 to 0.82), 0.71 (CI 0.60 to 0.84) and 0.77 (CI 0.65 to 0.91); the respective estimates for sugar-sweetened coffee consumption were 0.91 (CI 0.78 to 1.07), 0.69 (CI 0.57 to 0.84), 0.72 (CI 0.57 to 0 .91), 0.79 (CI 0.60 to 1.06) and 1.05 (CI, 0.82 to 1.36). The association between artificially sweetened coffee and mortality was less consistent. The association of coffee drinking with cancer and CVD death was broadly similar to that with all-cause death. U-shaped associations were also observed for instant coffee, ground coffee, and decaffeinated coffee.

Constraint:

Exposure assessed at baseline may not reflect changes in intake over time.

Conclusion:

Moderate consumption of unsweetened and sugar-sweetened coffee was associated with a lower risk of death.

Primary funding source:

National Natural Science Foundation of China, Young Elite Scientist Sponsorship Program by CAST and project supported by Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation.


Abstract

The Potential Health Benefit of Coffee: Does a Spoonful of Sugar Make It All Go Away?

Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages and there has long been an interest in understanding its health effects.

According to an estimate of 2022, Americans will drink 517 million cups of coffee a day, and 66% of Americans surveyed said they drank coffee in the past day.

Much of the data to date on the health effects of coffee is based on observational studies, and these – including 2 previous studies published in 2017 by Annals by Gunter and colleagues and Park and colleagues – suggest a U-shaped relationship between coffee consumption and all-cause mortality and other health outcomes; those who consume moderate amounts of coffee daily.

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